In the past few years, artificial intelligence (AI) has been a subject of intense media hype. Machine learning, deep learning, and AI come up in countless articles, often outside of technology-minded publications. We’re promised a future of intelligent chatbots, self-driving cars, and virtual assistants—a future sometimes painted in a grim light and other times as utopian, where human jobs will be scarce and most economic activity will be handled by robots or AI agents. For a future or current practitioner of machine learning, it’s important to be able to recognize the signal amid the noise, so that you can tell world-changing developments from overhyped press releases. Our future is at stake, and it’s a future in which you have an active role to play: after reading this book, you’ll be one of those who develop those AI systems. So let’s tackle these questions: What has deep learning achieved so far? How significant is it? Where are we headed next? Should you believe the hype?